Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia and it involves an interruption to the normal blood flow into the brain. In most cases of vascular dementia, this involves damage and disruption to the small blood vessels that penetrate through the brain, particularly in the white matter tracks underlying the cerebral cortex. In other cases of vascular dementia, there might be a series of small strokes occurring in different regions of the brain.
An individual is at an increased risk of developing vascular dementia if they have a history of a previous stoke, heart attack, hypertension, obesity and diabetes.
Clinical features depend on the sites of ischaemia but commonly seen physical challenges include decreased mobility and balance problems.
Vascular pathology is actually quite common with advanced ageing and this vascular disease can coexist with other forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease.